Yuan Mei, a poet of the Qing Dynasty, is a gourmet. In "Suiyuan Food List · Jingdan", he listed fourteen vulgar customs of food in one breath. Six of them were dedicated to entertaining, which was fun, helpful and interesting.
The first is to abstain from ear meals. "Ear-eaters, the name of the business also means. The name of greed, praise of the guest, is ear meals, but not mouth food." Yuan Mei thinks that this is not a dish, but a name. A certain eunuch invited a guest to serve two or two bird's nests boiled in white bowls, such as a large bowl. To entertain the guests, he said that he was hospitable and rich. Therefore, Yuan Mei teased and said: "My generation came to eat bird's nest, but also to sell bird's nest ... If the disciples boast decent, it is better to put a hundred pearls in the bowl, which is worth ten thousand yuan."
The second is to stop eating. "Earth-eaters are also greedy for more. Today people adore the name of" eating in front of food ". Many dishes are stacked in bowls for eye-eating and non-eating. Food, but no matter how much it is, the appetite can't bear it, and the heart is also difficult to rest, so Mencius said, "I will eat and serve hundreds of people, and I will do my best." The more and the worse. He attended a banquet for a rich man, "Serving three dishes and removing sixteen dishes, sixteen snacks, a total of more than forty kinds of food." The host was pleased, while the guests such as others returned "to cook hunger ", For the reason," Fumigation is foul, and there is nothing pleasing to the eye. "
The third is to quit violence. "The violent people don't give up their work, and the bad ones don't spare any material resources." Yuan Mei criticized the wealthy family for preparing turtles for their skirts, steamed catfish for their belly, and salted duck eggs for their yellow. According to legend, Zhang Juzheng, the first assistant of the Ming Dynasty, was uniquely "chicken tongue cricket". The chicken tongue is not difficult to find, but a bowl of soup requires dozens of chickens, and the bones of abandoned chickens are piled up like hills. Yuan Mei particularly hated the practice of "burning charcoal to burn the goose's palm and bayonet to take raw chicken's liver", satisfying her appetite by extremely cruel means, and apparently wasting her own money, in fact she was wanting herself Arrogant heart, this has been far away from the gentleman's thoughts of benevolence and love of things that he does not want.
Fourth, abstain from drinking. "But wine is a business, I know the rest, and the way of governing the taste sweeps the floor." Deliciousness needs careful care. Regardless of the amount of wine, three glasses of white wine under the belly, even if the stomach and stomach are not upside down, the tongue is already anesthetized with alcohol, no matter how good the taste is, it is difficult to distinguish, feel, and aftertaste. Yuan Mei thinks that alcoholism is "a good dish like sapwood," and it is a disappointment of the delicious food.
Fifth, give up. "It's reasonable to listen to the guests, why should they be reluctant to let it go?" Yuan Mei advocates eating at will, because "fine and smashed, each has its own advantages." If the host forces the guests to eat, it is already impolite; if the host "takes the food with a spoon, before the customers are piled up, there is no bowl of dirty dishes", it is even more irritating to the guests; for those who "take vegetables with a spoon, "Forcing people into the population", Yuan Mei directly called "especially abhorrent." What suits you is the best. This is very similar to the idea that poetry is about writing the spirit, expressing yourself and expressing yourself is the true feeling.
Sixth is the abstinence set. At that time, the official banquet had many names, "the name was called 16 dishes, eight dishes, and four snacks, the name of the Manhan table, the name of eight snacks, and the name of ten dishes." There were also many etiquettes. , Inserting screen incense case, three weeks of worship, can be described as putting a foot on the shelf. Yuan Mei likes warm and free family banquets. They don't pay attention to the format. They don't have so many names and pay attention. Such as writing poems, five-character and eight-character test posts, that is, propositional poems made during the exam, the format is fixed, and the prescribed rhyme should be used. Even such famous poems fall into the cliche.
Yuan Mei's six precepts-pragmatic, refinement, appreciating the talents, less alcohol, being comfortable, and paying attention to the environment and atmosphere. To sum it up, in his own words, "the sage is good at mediation and gentlemen have their taste." Plain taste does not mean to be vegetarian, but to eat different flavors in ordinary dishes, so that your taste buds can taste real, feel more comfortable, and feel more rustic. This not only solves hunger, but also Conducive to good health.
Coincidentally, the almost contemporary foodie, Li Yu, in the book "Qian Qing Ou Zhi" also proposed that the meat is not as good as vegetables, not too tasty, preserves the true taste, the beauty is light, avoid greasy, and eat, and pay attention to emotional mood And so on. Su Dongpo also said: "Dongpo residents have eaten in the morning and at night, but they have one meat and one meat. If there is a respected guest, they can be damaged. If you have recruited me, let them know in advance. The owner will not let this happen. Yes, that's it. One is to share the good fortune, the other is to broaden the stomach to nourish the gas, and the third is to save money to support the wealth. " If you do n’t go there, you will see how strict you are. Such "three upbringing" not only raises the body, but also lives and lives.
One cannot live without food for a day. It seems that the status of eating cannot be overemphasized. What to eat how to eat? From the diet, we can show our cultivation practices and reflect our life value. The importance of diet must not be careless. (Zhao Jianguo)
© Xiamen Municipal Commission of Discipline Inspection, Xiamen Municipal Commission of Supervision, Copyright ICP 13011616